Dangerous cargo

Dangerous cargo

Dangerous goods are materials or items with physical and chemical properties which, if not properly controlled, present a potential hazard to human health and safety and/or infrastructure. Dangerous goods are separated into categories through a classification system is outlined by the UN Model Regulations. Each dangerous substance or article is assigned to a class.

There are 9 classes of dangerous goods and the class is determined by the nature of the danger they present:

  • Class 1: Explosives
  • Class 2: Gases
  • Class 3: Flammable liquids
  • Class 4: Flammable solids
  • Class 5:Oxidising agents & organic peroxides
  • Class 6: Toxins and infectious substances
  • Class 7: Radioactive material
  • Class 8: Corrosives
  • Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous goods
مواد منفجره

Class 1: Explosives

Class 1 goods are explosives – products that possess the ability to alight or detonate during a chemical reaction. Explosives are dangerous because they have molecules designed to rapidly change their state, which is usually a solid state into a very hot gas. There are 6 sub-divisions of explosives, which relate to the product’s behaviour when initiated.

Examples of explosives include fireworks, flares, and ignitors.

1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both
1.4: Substances and articles which present no significant hazard; only a small hazard in the event of ignition during transport with any effects largely confined to the package
1.5: Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
مواد منفجره در حمل

Class 2: Gases

Class 2 consists of compressed gases, gases in their liquefied form, refrigerated gases, mixtures of gases with other vapours and products charged with gases or aerosols. These sorts of gases are often flammable and can be toxic or corrosive. They’re also hazardous because they can chemically react with oxygen. They are split into three sub-divisions:

Division 2.1: Flammable gases
Division 2.2: Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Division 2.3: Toxic gases
کالاهای خطرناک برای حمل

Class 3: Flammable liquids

A flammable liquid is defined as a liquid, a mixture of liquids, or liquids containing solids that require a much lower temperature than others to ignite. These temperatures are so low that there is a high risk of the liquids igniting during transportation. This makes flammable liquids very dangerous to handle and transport, as they are very volatile and combustible. Flammable liquids are usually used as fuels in internal combustion engines for motor vehicles and aircraft. This means they make up the largest tonnage of dangerous goods moved by surface transport. Many household products also contain flammable liquids, including perfumery products and acetone (which is used in nail polish remover).

جامدات قابل اشتعال

Class 4: Flammable solids

Class 4 dangerous goods are classified as products that are easily combustible and likely to contribute to fires during transportation. Some goods are self-reactive and some are liable to spontaneously heating up.

Examples of flammable solids include metal powders, sodium batteries and seed cake (oil-bearing seeds).

There are 3 sub-divisions for Class 4 dangerous goods:

Class 4.1 Flammable solids

These will burn easily than normal combustible materials. The burning of flammable solids is also fierce and rapid; they are also incredibly dangerous because they can decompose explosively, burn vigorously, or produce toxic gases

Class 4.2 Spontaneously combustible

These can be either solids or liquids. They ignite spontaneously when in contact with oxygen.

Class 4.3 Dangerous when wet

These goods react with water to generate flammable gas that can be ignited by the heat of the reaction.

مواد اکسید کننده

Class 5: Oxidising Agents and Organic peroxides

Class 5 dangerous goods are subdivided into ‘oxidising agents’ and ‘organic peroxides’. These are often extremely reactive because of their high oxygen content. They react readily with other flammable or combustible materials, which means fires may break out and continue in confined spaces. These materials are also incredibly difficult to extinguish, which makes them even more dangerous.

Examples include hydrogen peroxide and lead nitrate.

Class 5.1 Oxidising Agents

Also known as oxidisers, these substances that can cause or contribute to combustion as a product of chemical reactions. Oxidisers aren't necessarily combustible on their own, but the oxygen they produce can cause combustion with other materials.

Class 5.2 Organic peroxides

The molecular structure of these materials makes them extremely liable to ignition. This means they're liable to combust individually. They are designed to be reactive for industrial purposes, so they are unstable and can be explosive.


Class 6: Toxins and Infectious substances

Examples include medical waste, clinical waste, and acids.

Class 6.1 Toxins

Toxic substances are liable to cause death because they're, as the name suggests, toxic. They can cause serious injury or harm to human health if they enter the body through swallowing, breathing in, or absorption through the skin. Some toxics will kill in minutes, however, some might only injure if the dose isn't excessive.

Class 6.2 Infectious substances

These are goods that contain micro-organisms that cause infectious diseases in humans or animals, otherwise known as pathogens.

مواد رادیو اکتیو

Class 7: Radioactive material

Radioactive materials contain unstable atoms that change their structure spontaneously in a random fashion. They contain ‘radionuclides’, which are atoms with an unstable nucleus. It’s this unstable nucleus that releases radioactive energy. When an atom changes, they emit ionising radiation, which could cause chemical or biological change. This type of radiation can be dangerous to the human body. Examples include smoke detectors and yellowcake.


Class 8: Corrosives

 (corrosive substances) means substances which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport.


Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous goods

miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles are substances and articles which, during transport, present a danger not covered by other classes.